App-Based Ride and Taxi Services : Principles for Regulation

For-hire passenger transport services are an essential component of well-functioning metropolitan areas. But the markets for taxis and other for-hire vehicles have historically been subject to imperfections that regulators have tried to correct or at least attenuate. The current regulatory frameworks surrounding for hire transport reflects this history. But the arrival of innovative app-based ride services, generically referred to as Commercial Transport Apps (CTAs), in this report, challenges established rules. The growing popularity of these services has caught authorities off-guard, as CTAs typically do not fall under established regulatory structures. Moreover, the uptake of similar technologies amongst traditional for-hire operators blurs the line between existing regulatory categories, and in some cases obviates it.
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