France (SMEs, Entrepreneurship and Innovation)

During the 1980s the Agence Nationale de Valorisation de la Recherche, ANVAR, created in 1974 to promote the exploitation of public research results, was progressively reoriented to the mission of supporting SMEs by means of tools such as loans for innovative projects, contacts with research societies, recruitment of researchers and PhD students and counselling in intellectual property. In the nineties ANVAR opened regional delegations, which started to play a central role in the state/region multi-level governance of innovation policy.
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