Introduction to R&D statistics and the Frascati Manual (Frascati Manual 2015: Guidelines for Collecting and Reporting Data on Research and Experimental Development)

The Frascati Manual has been an international standard for more than fifty years and it is now a world standard. The use of research and experimental development (R&D) statistics, based on the guidance in the manual, has gained influence and the statistics are being used in a wide range of policy areas, and in many countries outside of the OECD. The manual provides the basis for a common language for talking about R&D and its outcomes. In keeping with the extensive use of the manual, and the presence of its definitions in other international manuals and in country regulations, the definition of R&D and its components have been kept close to those in previous editions. More attention has been spent on identifying boundaries between what is and what is not R&D and on meeting new demands on R&D statistics. An example is the decision to treat expenditure on R&D as a capital investment in the System of National Accounts (SNA) and this has required greater attention to the flows of funds for R&D. Tax incentives for R&D performance are widespread and a chapter has been added to cover this. A new chapter has been added to address globalisation and its implications for R&D statistics. To remain current, extensive use is made of online annexes. This chapter introduces the manual.
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