Chile's Innovation Performance in an International Perspective (OECD Reviews of Innovation Policy: Chile 2007)

R&D intensity is a key input to innovation and, despite its limitations,7 one of the indicators most widely used to compare innovation activities in different countries. Chile's total R&D intensity -the ratio of gross expenditure on research and development (GERD) to gross domestic product (GDP)- is 0.68% (2004), less than one-third of the OECD average of 2.25% (2003). At 0.31% of GDP, its business enterprise expenditure on R&D (BERD) is even weaker relative to the OECD average of 1.53%. While R&D intensity has risen steadily since the 1980s in the OECD area, spending on R&D has remained fairly stable in Chile, although data limitations call for caution when undertaking international comparisons (Table 2.1) .
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