Executive Summary (Commercialising Public Research: New Trends and Strategies)

Public research in universities and public research institutions (PRIs) are the source of many of today's technological innovations from recombinant DNA technology, the Global Positioning System (GPS) and the MP3 technology to Apple's Siri voice recognition technology. But recent data on the number of patents, licenses and companies created at universities and PRIs show a general slowdown since the late 2000s. This has raised concern among policy makers and practitioners about the effectiveness of commercialisation policies and mainstream technology transfer practices at universities and PRIs. This has in turn generated interest in new approaches to turn science into business as well as in new indicators for measuring the two-ways flows of knowledge and technology between public research and business.
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