Indicators of the Internationalisation of Science and Technology (OECD Patent Statistics Manual)

Inventive activities are increasingly organised at the international level (OECD, 2007). Inventions made by researchers residing in one country can be funded and owned by foreign companies, companies from different countries can join their resources to sponsor research, and researchers from different countries can co-operate on inventions, etc. Alliances across different geographical locations are formed to obtain research synergies and complementarities and to acquire new technological competences. The advent of global value chains, differences in research and development (R&D) costs, increased flexibility in handling cross-border R&D projects (owing to information and communication technology - ICT), and major policy changes (such as stronger intellectual property rights or the tax treatment of R&D) have all favoured this trend. Given the importance of these changes and their implications for the technological capacity of countries, it is important to quantify the intensity and geographical patterns of these activities.
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