Chapter 2 - How does public research affect industry innovation and entrepreneurship?

Summary of the chapter

This chapter explores the direct contribution of public research to technical inventions, based on a newly compiled database covering 36 countries over the period 1992-2013 that matches data on public research institutions and patent applications to the European Patent Office. Based on this data, it looks at technology trends in university patenting; trends in university-industry research collaboration (based on joint patenting activity); differences in the characteristics of public research patents and private patents; and the impact of public research institutions on local innovation (i.e. the importance of geographic proximity). The last section explores the characteristics of academic start-ups based on data from Crunchbase for OECD and BRICS countries for the period 2001-16. It presents trends observed with three types of academic start-ups: companies with a student founder, a PhD founder, and a founder with research experience.

Chapter 2 in a nutshell

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